Pore-filling nanoporous templates from degradable block copolymers for nanoscale drug delivery. The optimized gas temperature, gas flow, nebulizer pressure, and capillary voltage were 350°C, 10 L per minute, 30 psi, and 6,000 V, respectively. The PS-PDLLA NPs are expected to be a biocompatible and efficient nano-delivery system for anticancer drugs. Toxicology. NIOSH REL: 50 ppm (215 mg/m3) TWA, 100 ppm (425 mg/m3) STEL. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 24(10):295-296. Nano-sized vehicles based on PS have been widely investigated as a drug delivery system.8,9 Amorphous PDLLA, based on the polymerization of a racemic mixture of L- and D-lactides, has been used for drug delivery in itself or in its conjugate form.10 Taking the biomedical functionalities of each component (PS or PDLLA) into account, it seems that PS-PDLLA copolymer has merit to be used for the development of a drug delivery system. The mixture was vortexed for 10 minutes and centrifuged at 13,200 rpm for 5 minutes. Gas chromatography for detection of styrene production by B. mycoides. Notes: (A) Change in the particle size (nm) of PS-PDLLA/DCT NPs in serum was monitored for 24 hours; (B) size distribution of developed NPs in serum at 0 and 24 hours. Notes: Cellular uptake and distribution of DiI-loaded NPs were observed by CLSM. The weight ratio between PS-PDLLA and DCT was 10:1 in the PS-PDLLA/DCT NPs group. 1968]. The centrifuging and resuspending processes were repeated three times to remove PVA. Blood-stable, tumor-adaptable disulfide bonded mPEG-(Cys)4-PDLLA micelles for chemotherapy. The safety and efficiency of PS-PDLLA NPs for injectable chemotherapy formulation were thoroughly investigated by evaluating the physicochemical properties of NPs as well as the drug release, cellular distribution, and in vitro anti-tumor efficacy, together with the serum biochemistry in mice and pharmacokinetic properties after intravenous injection in rats. Thin sheets and strips can be cut through with a very sharp knife or single edge razor blade. DCT-loaded PS-PDLLA NPs were prepared using an emulsification-solvent evaporation method with slight modification.17 Briefly, DCT and PS-PDLLA (4:20 and 4:40, mg, weight per weight [w/w]) were dissolved in 2 mL of DCM, and added to 20 mL of PVA solution (2%, weight per volume [w/v]). 3pcs ABS Plastic Styrene Plasticard Roof Tiles Sheet 215mm x 300mm or 8.46 x 11.81inch White for Model Train Layout ABS38-3-NUS $12.99 $ 12 . Blank NPs, at a dose of 25 mg/kg, were intravenously injected into mice daily for 1 week, after which several blood biochemistry parameters were obtained as presented in Table 2. In vitro cytotoxicity of blank PS-PDLLA NPs. Rapid lymph accumulation of polystyrene nanoparticles following pulmonary administration. 68-D2-0160 Work Assignment No.01 LOCATING AND ESTIMATING AIR EMISSIONS FROM SOURCES OF STYRENE Final Report Prepared for: Kobayashi D, Kawai N, Sato S, et al. Ren J, Zhao P, Ren T, Gu S, Pan K. Poly(D,L-lactide)/nano-hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering and biocompatibility evaluation. Mean diameter of the developed NPs in 50% FBS. Zhao ZX, Gao SY, Wang JC, et al. Styrene Information & Resources Center. 1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 50 ppm (213 mg/m3) TWA. DiI, as a hydrophobic fluorescent dye, was incorporated into the nanovesicles instead of DCT for monitoring the intracellular movement of NPs for 24 hours in PC-3 cells. Abbreviations: ALT, alanine transaminase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; IP, inorganic phosphorus; TBIL, total bilirubin; TCHO, total cholesterol; TP, total protein; NP, nanoparticle; PS-PDLLA, poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide); SD, standard deviation. Nevertheless, only a few among those developed have been approved for clinical applications due to toxicity of the materials and insufficient biodistribution of the nanovehicles to the tumors. Blank NPs did not induce any serious cytotoxicity in PC-3 cells. Muthu MS, Feng SS. All of these results support the use of the PS-PDLLA copolymer for fabrication of NPs in anticancer drug delivery. The NPs suspensions were eliminated by washing with PBS (pH 7.4) three times. The analytical data were processed using the MassHunter Workstation Software Quantitative Analysis (vB.05.00; Agilent Technologies). Yoon G, Park JW, Yoon IS. 1. The UCST should lie between 150 and 250 °C. SIRC is committed to sponsoring new research to better understand the potential effects of styrene … The lower cell viability of the developed DCT-loaded NPs also indicates their improved cellular uptake efficiency. Pharmacokinetic properties of PS-PDLLA/DCT NPs were compared with those of Taxotere in rats after intravenous administration. The pharmacokinetic parameters of each formulation, area under the drug concentration in plasma–time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC), terminal half-life (t1/2), time-averaged total body clearance (CL), apparent volume of distribution at steady state (Vss), and mean residence time (MRT), were calculated using WinNonlin® (v3.1; Pharsight Corporation, Mountain View, CA, USA). EE(%)=actual amount of drug in NPsinput amount of drug in NPs×100. As incubation time increased, cellular uptake of NPs increased. Preclinical pharmacokinetic, biodistribution, and anti-cancer efficacy studies of a docetaxel-carboxymethylcellulose nanoparticle in mouse models. Styrene is the precursor to polystyrene and several copolymers. The femoral artery and vein were cannulated with Intramedic™ Polyethylene Tubing (PE-50; Becton, Dickinson & Co., Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) under anesthesia with Zoletil® (Virbac S. A., Carros, France) at a dose of 50 mg/kg via intramuscular injection. There was no indication of a concern for chronic toxicity based on these studies. A 200 μL aliquot of the medium was collected at fixed times (3, 6, 9, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, and 240 hours), and an equivalent volume of fresh media was replenished at each time point. Abbreviations: AUC, total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity; CL, time-averaged total body clearance; DCT, docetaxel; MRT, mean residence time; NP, nanoparticle; PS-PDLLA, poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide); SD, standard deviation; t1/2, terminal half-life; Vss, apparent volume of distribution at steady state. Yin YM, Cui FD, Mu CF, et al. Yang R, Yang SG, Shim WS, et al. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and DDW with 0.1% (v/v) formic acid (70:30, v/v) and the flow rate was 0.2 mL per minute. Hyaluronic acid-ceramide-based optical/MR dual imaging nanoprobe for cancer diagnosis. Various nanovehicles, such as liposomes, NPs, and micelles, have been developed and evaluated for DCT delivery to improve delivery efficiency and attenuate unwanted effects.14–16. Abbreviations: DCT, docetaxel; DW, distilled water; FE-SEM, field emission-scanning electron microscope; NP, nanoparticle; PS-PDLLA, poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide); SEI, secondary electron imaging; WD, working distance. The NPs pellet was resuspended in 20 mL double-distilled water (DDW). In DCT-loaded NPs with a 5:1 polymer:drug weight ratio, 77.06%±9.76% of DCT was released from NPs after 10 days. Biocompatibility of PS-PDLLA can be estimated from the biomedical application of each polymer component as reported.27,31 The result of the cytotoxicity test supports the feasibility of PS-PDLLA NPs as a safe drug delivery vehicle. Notes: (A) Size distribution in DW and (B) FE-SEM images of PS-PDLLA/DCT at 5:1 and 10:1 polymer to drug weight ratios are shown. CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website. Breathing high levels of styrene may cause changes in color vision, tiredness, feeling drunk, slowed reaction time, concentration problems, or balance problems. Cleveland, OH: Chemical Rubber Co., p. 77. Blood samples (−300 μL) were collected from the femoral artery at 1, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 360 minutes after injection, followed by replenishment with a 0.9% sodium chloride injectable solution containing heparin (20 U/mL) at each time point to prevent blood clotting. The dissolution medium (10 mL), PBS (pH 7.4) containing 0.5% (w/v) Tween 80, was agitated at 50 rpm using a shaking bath at 37°C. Cho HJ, Yoon HY, Koo H, et al. Styrene showed a similar degree of toxicity as 4-fluorostyrene (Figure 1 and Table 1). All serum biochemical parameters, such as total cholesterol (TCHO), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein (TP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total bilirubin (TBIL), and inorganic phosphorus (IP), were obtained by using a Fuji Dri-Chem 3500s (Fujifilm Holdings Corp., Tokyo, Japan). Cellular uptake efficiency of the developed NPs can improve cancer therapy after the arrival of NPs in the tumor region via passive tumor targeting, based on the EPR effect. Cementing Unlike wood or other materials, polystyrene parts are joined by bonding with a … Note: Each point indicates the mean ± SD (n=4). Moreover, the mean diameter and size distribution of the developed NPs containing DCT were consistently maintained for 24 hours in 50% (volume per volume) FBS (Figure 3). DCT is almost insoluble in water (4.93 μg/mL). In vitro DCT release profiles from PS-PDLLA NPs. Cytotoxicity testing of blank NPs suggested that they did not induce any serious cytotoxicity in PC-3 cells (Figure 5). Styrene, also known as vinyl benzene, is a colorless oily liquid that evaporates easily and has a sweet smell, although high concentrations confer a less pleasant odor. The cytotoxicity of blank PS-PDLLA NPs in PC-3 cells was measured using an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS)-based assay. The fluorescence intensity was stronger at 24 hours compared to the 2- and 4-hour incubated groups. The developed blank NPs exhibited negligible cytotoxicity in PC-3 cells under these conditions. This includes data values and the controlled vocabularies that house them. The absorbance was measured at 490 nm using an EMax Precision Microplate Reader (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). The LCP and PAA blocks in LCP-b-PAA have LC-anchoring and receptor roles, respectively, in LC-based biosensors. Understanding the nanoparticle-protein corona using methods to quantify exchange rates and affinities of proteins for nanoparticles. Xiao Z, Levy-Nissenbaum E, Alexis F, et al. Abbreviations: DCT, docetaxel; NP, nanoparticle; PS-PDLLA, poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide). Lee SY, Kim S, Tyler JY, Park K, Cheng JX. Alarie Y [1981]. There was no significant difference between the control and the NP-treated group, indicating that intravenous injection of the developed PS-PDLLA NPs at the times and doses used resulted in no serious toxicities. Datasets available include LCSH, BIBFRAME, LC Name Authorities, LC Classification, MARC codes, PREMIS vocabularies, ISO language codes, and more. 1968]. Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed. Thus, drug solubilization techniques were used to prepare the commercial formulation Taxotere® (Sanofi S.A., Paris, France), which is marketed worldwide as an injectable formulation of DCT.13 However, although solubility of DCT has been improved for its clinical application, toxicity of the blank formulation and inaccurate tumor targeting still remain to be overcome. Scale bars =100 nm. Aliquots (50 μL) of the plasma samples were spiked with PTX as an internal standard in acetonitrile (10 μL volume, 1 μg/mL concentration), and mixed with acetonitrile (90 μL) for deproteinization. Taxotere was obtained from Sanofi S.A. Docetaxel (DCT) was acquired from LC Laboratories (Woburn, MA, USA). [1982]. Photoswitchable nanoparticles for in vivo cancer chemotherapy. Termsarasab U, Cho HJ, Kim DH, et al. Combination delivery of TGF-β inhibitor and IL-2 by nanoscale liposomal polymeric gels enhances tumour immunotherapy. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was purchased from Biosesang (Seongnam, Korea). Comprehensive 2D-LC analysis of a mixture of SAN with interaction chromatography in the fi rst dimension and SEC in the second dimension; (A) Agilent 1290 Infi nity II Diode Array Detector at 254 nm; (B) Agilent 1290 Infi nity II Evaporative Light Scattering Detector. Cho HJ, Yoon HY, Koo H, et al. The detection wavelength, flow rate, and injection volume were 230 nm, 1.0 mL per minute, and 20 μL, respectively. Treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer using antimicrotubule agents docetaxel and estramustine in combination: an experimental study. Furthermore, improved inhibition of cancer cell growth could lead to enhanced in vivo anti-tumor efficacy, based on the stability of the developed NPs in serum (Figure 3). Styrene can be found in air, soil, and water after release from the manufacture, use, and disposal of styrene-based products. already built in. Nanovehicles, known to produce sufficient aqueous solubility, sustained release, and tumor targeting of anticancer drugs, have been developed based on diverse materials as one of these injectable formulations. R2. The obtained DCT-loaded PS-PDLLA NPs were freeze-dried and stored at −70°C (DF8517; Ilshin Laboratory Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea) for further experiments. Decreased in vivo drug clearance, elevated systemic exposure, and prolonged circulation of the drug were verified in a pharmacokinetic study in rats. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs): recent advances in drug delivery. Red and blue colors indicate DiI and DAPI, respectively. Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for styrene is 700 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [AIHA 1959; Stewart et al. 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